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Study of “ordained” (τάσσω G5021) Act 13:48 – “and as many as were ordained to eternal life believed”

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Acts 13:48
And when the Gentiles heard this, they were glad, and glorified the word of the Lord: and as many as were ordained to eternal life believed. 

A cursory reading of Acts 13:48 appears to imply very clearly that Calvinism’s view of election and eternal life is true. In this post I will investigate what I can find about “ordained” tasso (Strong’s G5021).

SelectedLiterary from the Greek, this verse reads something like this…

But hearing the Gentiles they were glad and glorified the word of the Lord, and they believed which were ordered unto eternal life.

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What we want to do here is first review some Greek lexicons to see how this word tasso is defined by them, and from there, go into actual contexts where it is used to understand its exact meaning.

The word does not have the idea of a command, or order, but rather that of a placement “in order” of something in a larger arrangement of things.

Usage:

This word is used 8 times:
Matthew 28:16: “a mountain where Jesus had appointed them.”
Luke 7:8: “also am a man set under authority, having under”
Acts 13:48: “and as many as were ordained to eternal life believed.”
Acts 15:2: “disputation with them, they determined that Paul and Barnabas,”
Acts 22:10: “of all things which are appointed for thee to do.
Acts 28:23: “And when they had appointed him a day, there came many to him”
Romans 13:1: “the powers that be are ordained of God.”
1 Corinthians 16:15: “the firstfruits of Achaia, and that they have addicted themselves to the ministry of the”

[chapter:Various Greek Lexicons]

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Thayer’s Definition

  1. to put in order, to station
    1. to place in a certain order, to arrange, to assign a place, to appoint
      1. to assign (appoint) a thing to one
      2. to appoint, ordain, order
        1. to appoint on one’s own responsibility or authority
        2. to appoint mutually, i.e. agree upon

    DCox Comment: Thayer’s idea is that a thing is “set” but that it can be equally an authority setting someone below him (without his necessary consent) but also with that consent as a mutual expression of the two doing the “setting”.

    Synonyms

    See Definition for G1781
    See Definition for G2753
    See Definition for G3853
    See Definition for G5021

    1781 – to enjoin, is used esp. of those whose office or position invests them with claims, and points rather to the contents of the command, cf “our instruction”
    2753 – to command, designates verbal orders, coming usually from a superior
    3853 – to charge, is used esp. of the order of a military commander to his troops
    5021 – assign a post to, with a suggestion of duties connected with it, often used of military appointments

    3853 differs from 1781 in denoting fixed and abiding obligations rather than specific or occasional instructions, duties arising from the office rather than coming from the personal will of a superior.

    NAS

    Greek lexicon based on Thayer’s and Smith’s Bible Dictionary plus others; this is keyed to the large Kittel and the “Theological Dictionary of the New Testament.”

    to put in order, to station

    1. to place in a certain order, to arrange, to assign a place, to appoint
      1. to assign (appoint) a thing to one
    2. to appoint, ordain, order
      1. to appoint on one’s own responsibility or authority
      2. to appoint mutually, i.e. agree upon

    Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

    τάσσω,

    I. A. Ag. 332, etc.; Att. τάρφττω Pl. Prt. 262e, etc.: fut. τάξω A. Th. 285, etc.: aor. ἔταξα Id. Supp. 986, etc.: pf. τέτᾰχα X. Oec. 4.5, (συν-) Pl. Lg. 625c: plpf. ἐτετάχει Plb. 5.65.7: Med., fut.τάξομαι (in pass. sense) LXX Exodus 29:43 : aor. ἐταξάμην Hdt. 3.13, Th. 2.83, etc.: Pass., fut. ταχθήσομαι D.S. 11.41, (ἐπι-) Th. 1.140, etc.; later τᾰγήσομαι (ἐν-) Orib. 8.1, (ὑπο-) 1 Corinthians 15:28; 1 Corinthians 3:1-23 f ut. τετάξομαι E. IT 1046, Th. 5.71, Ar. Av. 637: aor.ἐτάχθην A. Eu. 279, etc.; later ἐτάγην [ ] SIG 708.9 (Istropolis, ii B.C.), Plu. 2.965e, Perict. ap. Stob. 4.25.50, etc.: pf. τέταγμαι Pi. O. 2.30, etc.; 3 pl. τετάχαται Th. 3.13, (ἀντι-) X. An. 4.8.5: 3 pl. plpf. ἐτετάχατο Th. 5.6, 7.4:

    draw up in order of battle, form, array, marshal, both of troops and ships, τὴν στρατιήν Hdt. 1.191;τοὺς ὁπλίτας Th. 4.9; νεῶν στῖφος ἐν στίχοις τρισίν A. Pers. 366; πολεμίων στίχαςE. Heracl. 676; τ. εἰς μάχην στρατιάν X. Cyr. 1.6.43: abs., Isoc. 18.47: Pass., to be drawn up, ἐς μάχην Hdt. 1.80; οὐδένα κόσμον ταχθέντες Id. 9.69; ἐπὶ τεττάρων ταχθῆναι in four lines, X. An. 1.2.15; ἐπὶ μιᾶς, of ships, Id. HG 1.6.29; ἐπὶ κέρως Eub. 67.4; κατὰ μίαν ναῦν τεταγμένοι in line, Th. 2.84; ἐπὶ ὀκτώ, of troops, Id. 6.67: abs., τεταγμένοι in rank and file, Id. 2.81 (so metaph., τὸ ἐν τῷ τεταγμένῳ ὄν the rank and file, opp. Senators and Equites, D.C. 49.12); στράτευμα τεταγμένον, opp. ἄτακτον, X. Mem. 3.1.7: Med., fall in, form in order of battle, freq. in Th., 1.48, 4.11, etc.; ὡς ἐς μάχην 2.20; ἐτάξαντο κύκλον τῶν νεῶνformed in a circle, ib. 83, cf. 3.78; ἐτάξαντο οὐ πάντες ὁμοίως 5.68; εἴκοσι ναυσὶ ἐτάξαντο 3.77 (but in 2.90 trans., ἐπὶ τεσσάρων ταξάμενοι τὰς ναῦς having drawn up their ships in four lines, cf. E. Heracl. 664).

    2. post, station, τὰς καμήλους ἀντία τῆς ἵππου Hdt. 1.80, cf. E. Ph. 749; τινὰς ἐπί τιναςone group against another, X. Cyr. 2.1.9 (but τ. τινὰ ἐπὶ τοὺς ἱππέας set him over them, to command them, Id. HG 3.4.20); ἑαυτὸν ὑμῖν τάξαι παρέσχεν for enrolment, Lys. 31.9, cf. Lycurg. 43: Pass., to be posted or stationed, τῇ οὐδεὶς ἐτέτακτο Hdt. 1.84, cf. A. Pers. 381; ἐς τὸ ὄρος Hdt. 7.212; but ἐς τὸ πεζόν or ἐς π. τετάχθαι to serve among the infantry, ib. 21, 81; ἐς τὸν ναυτικὸν στρατὸνθέντες ib. 203: c. gen., τῆς πρώτης τάξεως (or simply τῆς πρώτης) τεταγμένος Lys. 14.11, 16.15: c. acc. cogn., τάξιν τινὰ ταχθῆναι Pl. Phdr. 247a, etc.; δεξιὸν τεταγμένους κέρας E. Supp. 657: freq. folld. by Preps. (cf. infr. 11.1, etc.), ταχθῆναι or τετάχθαι ἐπί τινα or τινας against another, Th. 3.78, etc.; ἐπί τινι or τισι A. Th. 448, Th. 2.70, 3.13, etc.; also, to be posted at a place, ἐφ’ ἑπτὰ πύλαις ταχθέντες ἴσοι πρὸς ἴσους S. Ant. 142 (anap.); ἐπ’ εὐωνύμῳ κέρατι on the left wing, X. Oec. 4.19; ἐπὶ τοῦ λαιοῦ κέρως Plb. 1.34.4; τ. κατά τινα over against.., Hdt. 8.85, X. An. 2.3.19; τ. μετά τινα behind him.., Id. HG 7.2.4 (so ἐπί τινι Id. Lac. 13.7);μετά τινος with him, by his side, Plb. 2.67.2, etc., cf. Th. 2.63; σύν τινι X. An. 3.2.17, etc.;παρὰ τὸν ποταμόν Hdt. 9.15; περὶ τὸ Ἥραιον ib. 69; ἀμφὶ τὴν Κέον Id. 8.76.

    II appoint to any service, military or civil, the latter being metaph. from the former, ἄρχοντας X. HG 7.1.24; τινὰ ἐπί τινι Id. Cyr. 8.6.17, D. 17.20, etc.; ἐπὶ τὰς πράξεις Isoc. 5.151, cf. Pl. Ly. 209b, etc.; ἀξιῶ σε τάξαι με ἐπί τινος PCair.Zen. 447.3 (iii B.C.): also τ. ἑαυτὸν ἐπί τιundertake a task, Pl. R. 371c, D. 8.71, etc.; πρός τι X. Mem. 2.4.6: Pass., οἱ τεταγμένοι βραβῆς S. El. 709, cf. 759; πρέσβεις ταχθέντες D. 19.69; τετάχθαι ἐπί τινι to be appointed to a service, Hdt. 1.191, 2.38, A. Pers. 298, E. Ion 1040, X. Cyr. 4.6.1; ἐπί τι Ar. Av. 637, X. Cyr. 1.4.24, etc.; also ἐπί τινος Hdt. 5.109 (ἐπ’ οὗ, v.l. ὅκου), D. 10.46; τὸν ἐπὶ τῆς σφαγῆς τεταγμένον Plu. Cleom. 38, cf. Plb. 3.12.5; ὁ πρὸς τοῖς γράμμασι τεταγμένοςsecretary, Id. 15.27.7; οἱ πρὸς ταῖς φυλακαῖς (tolls) τετ. PCair.Zen. 31.15 (iii B.C.).

    2. c. acc. et inf., appoint or order one to do or be, τάττετ’ ἐμὲ ἡγεῖσθαι X. An. 3.1.25, cf. Cyr. 7.3.1, Hdt. 3.25, S. OC 639, E. Hec. 223, etc.: Pass., μοῖρα ἡ ταχθεῖσα.. φρουρέεινHdt. 4.133, cf. 8.13, A. Eu. 279, 639, etc.; τασσόμενος πορεύεσθαι X. Cyr. 4.5.11, etc.;τοῦτο τετάγμεθα (sc. ποιεῖν) E. Alc. 49; also τεταγμένος κίοι A. Supp. 504; ὁ ἐπ’ Αἴγυπτον ταχθείς (sc. κῆρυξ) ordered to Egypt, Hdt. 3.62, cf. 68, 6.48.

    3. also τ. τινί c. inf., Id. 2.124, X. Cyr. 1.5.5, etc.: impers., ἴωμεν.., ἵν’ ἡμῖν τέτακται (sc.ἰέναι) S. Ph. 1181 (lyr.); οἷς ἐτέτακτο παραβοηθεῖν Th. 3.22; τοῖς δὲ ἕπεσθαι τέτακται X. Lac. 11.6: also with inf. omitted, κόσμον φυλάσσουσ’ ὅντιν’ ἂν τάξῃ πόλις (sc. φυλάσσειν) E. Supp. 245, cf. 460, Hel. 1390, etc.

    4. assign to a duty or class of dutiful persons, ἐν πᾶσιν ἐμαυτὸν ἔταττον D. 18.221; εἰς ὑπηρετικὴν αὑτοὺς τ. Pl. Plt. 289e; πρός τινας τάξαι αὑτόν Din. 3.18; σὺν ἐμοὶ τ. σεαυτήν D.H. 8.47; τ. ἐμαυτὸν εἰς τάξιν τινά X. Mem. 2.8; τινὰς εἰς τοὺς ἀρχικούςib. 7; εἰς τὴν δουλείαν ἐμαυτόν ib. 11; τ. ἑαυτόν τινων εἶναι range oneself with.., D. 19.302: Pass., πρὸς τὴν ξυμμαχίαν ταχθῆναι to join it, Th. 3.86.

    III c. acc. rei, place in a certain order or relative position, χωρὶς ἑκάτερα τ. Hdt. 7.36; τίνα μέσον τάξω λόγον; E. El. 908; πρῶτον καὶ τελευταῖον τὸ κάλλιστον τ. X. Mem. 3.1.9; τὰ τυφλὰ τοῦ σώματος καὶ ἄοπλα ἐναντία τάττειν τοῖς πολεμίοις Id. Cyr. 3.3.45; τοὺς πόδας [τοῦ ἐμβρύου] κατ’ εὐθὺ τοῦ στομίου τῆς ὑστέρας τάσσειν Sor. 2.60; μὴ κατὰ ἄνεμον τῶν οἰκημάτων τάττειν τὴν ἅλω Gp. 2.26.1; τάξας.. ἀπὸ μὲν δύσεως μίαν θυρίδα φωτὸς ἕνεκεν ib.14.6.6; [ κηρίας] τὴν μεσότητα τάσσειν ὑπὸ τὸ γένειον PMed.Lond. 155ii 29, cf. Sor. Fasc. 25. al.; εἰς ταὐτὸ τ. τὴν εὐτυχίαν τῇ εὐδαιμονίᾳ Arist. EN 1099b7; Λυδοὺς.. πρὸς ἅπαντας range over against, Pl. Plt. 262e;τὴν σοφιστικὴν περὶ τὸ μὴ ὂν ἔταξεν Arist. Metaph. 1026b15, cf. Top. 125b21; c. inf., [Ὅμηρον] ἐν τοῖς.. σοφωτάτοις εἶναι τάττομεν Aeschin. 1.142; οὐκ εὐλόγως τὸ τοιοῦτον σημεῖον ἐν τοῖς φρενιτικοῖς τάττει Gal. 16.521, cf. 18(2).238; τ. τι ἐπί τινοςapply a term to a certain sense, Ath. 1.21a: Pass., τετάχθαι κατά τινος D.H. 2.48;ἔμπροσθεν τ. τινός Pl. Lg. 631d, cf. X. Mem. 3.1.7, etc. with an inf. and Adj., lay down, rule to be so and so, ἅπερ ἂν.. αἰσχρὰ εἶναι καὶ κακὰ τάττῃ Pl. Lg. 728a; τά τε δίκαια ταχθέντ’ εἶναι καὶ ἄδικα Id. Plt. 305b.

    2. ordain, prescribe, τ. τὰ περὶ τὰ τέκνα Arist. Pol. 1262b6: abs., ὁ νόμος οὕτω τ. Pl. La. 199a; οὕτω τ. ὁ λόγος Arist. EN 1119b17: Pass., τὸ ταττόμενον Ar. Ec. 766; τὸ ταχθὲν τελεῖν S. Aj. 528; τὰ τεταγμένα X. Cyr. 1.2.5, etc.; τὰ τετ. ἄγειν the things appointed to them for conveying, ib. 8.5.4; τῆς τροφῆς ἡ βελτίστη τέτακται τοῖς ἐλευθέροις Arist. GA 744b18; ἐν τῷ τεταγμένῳ εἶναι to be fulfilling one’s obligations, IG 12.57.47, 22.116.48, X. Cyr. 6.2.37.

    3. of taxes or payments, assess, τὸν φόρον ταῖς πόλεσι And. 4.11, cf. Aeschin. 2.23, D. 23.209; ταῖσδε ἔταξαν οἱ τάκται IG 12.218.45; so τ. τῷ ναύτῃ δραχμήν X. HG 1.5.4: with inf. added, χρήματα τοῖς πᾶσι τάξαντες φέρειν Th. 1.19, etc. (Pass., φόρον ἐτάχθησαν φέρειν Hdt. 3.97); τάσσειν ἀργυρίου πολλοῦ fix a high price, Th. 4.26: Pass., τὸ ταχθὲν τίμημα Pl. R. 551b; εἰσφέρειν τὸ τεταγμένον Arist. Pol. 1272a14: Med., take a payment on oneself, i.e. agree to pay it, φόρον τάξασθαι Hdt. 3.13, 4.35;χρήματα ἀποδοῦναι ταξάμενοι Th. 1.101; χρήματα ταξάμενοι κατὰ χρόνους ἀποδοῦναι agreeing to pay by instalments, ib. 117, cf. 3.70; πόλεις αὐταὶ ταξάμεναι IG 12.212.72, cf. 211 vi 6; also τάξασθαι ἐς τὴν δωρεήν Hdt. 3.97 (but also, much like Act.,ἐτάξατο φόρους οἱ προσιέναι ib. 89). Med., generally, agree upon, settle, ταξαμένους..δέχεσθαι μισθὸν τῆς φυλακῆς Pl. R. 416e; τὰς τιμάς Id. Lg. 743e, cf. 844b, 844c, al.;τέταγμαι ποιμέσιν, οἵ μοι δώσουσιν τιμήν PMich.Zen. 56.19 (iii B.C.); votum expld. asεὐχή, ὃ τάττεταί τις θεῷ, Gloss.: c. inf. fut., PEnteux. 54.5 (iii B.C.), Plb. 18.7.7, al. Med., pay, τῆς δὲ τιμῆς τάξονται παραχρῆμα τὸ δ μέρος, τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν ἐν ἔτεσι γPEleph. 14.18 (iii B.C.), cf. PEnteux. 60.9, 89.7, PMich.Zen. 79.9, PCair.Zen. 649.16 (all iii B.C.), PAmh. 2.31.1, 52.1, Ostr.Bodl. i 46, 96, al., PLond. 3.1201.1, 1202.1 (all ii B.C.).

    4. impose punishments, τ. δίκην Ar. V. 1420, etc.; τ. ζημίας, τιμωρίας, Pl. Lg. 876c, D. 20.143; τῷ κλέψαντι θάνατον Lycurg. 65: also in Med., Hdt. 2.65. impose laws, οὓς[νόμους] ἔταξε αὐτοῖς ὁ νομοθέτης Pl. Lg. 772c.

    5. in pf. part. Pass., fixed, settled, prescribed, ὁ τεταγμένος χρόνος (like τακτός) Hdt. 2.41, etc.; ὥρα E. Ba. 723; ἡμέρα X. Cyr. 1.2.4; ἔτη Pl. Lg. 810b; ἡ τετ. χώρα X. Cyr. 5.3.40; αἱ τετ. θυσίαι the regular offerings, Id. HG 3.3.4; οἱ ἐπὶ τούτῳ τετ. [νόμοι ] Pl. Cri. 50d; ἡ τετ. δίαιτα prescribed, Id. R. 404a; τὰ τετ. ὀνόματα received, Isoc. 9.9; τετ. τέχνηregular, Id. 13.12; τεταγμένον, opp. ἄτακτον, Arist. Cael. 280a8; νὺξ τὰ τεταγμέν’ ἀπέχει Lyr.Alex. Adesp. 37.6; of geom. figures, regular, i.e. equilateral and equiangular, Papp. 306.2, 8, al.–cf. τεταγμένως.

    [chapter:Sermonindex.net Word Study]

    This is probably one of the most serious studies I have come across yet.
     Appoint (establish, designate, determine) (5021) tasso

    (tasso) means to place, to draw up in order, to arrange in place, assign or dispose to a certain position, order or lot or to a particular task. To ordain or to designate. In relation to a properly assigned authority tasso means = be instituted, be appointed, be established (as here in Ro 13:1). Tasso is used in determining a fixed time or course of events (Mt 28:16, Acts 28:23). Tasso can convey the idea of devoted in some context (1Cor 16:15), of doing something regularly and devotedly.

    DCox Comments: The idea then is to assign a place of service or authority to function in some way. While in the discussion of Calvinism and election, the idea of election is one of service not always salvation. So the word can have selection and installation into a particular service. We are saved for service, but the two concepts are not the same thing.

    [chapter:God set, or man participated]

    The Greek word tasso has a definite “setting” meaning, in which somebody determines something (Mat 28:16 – Jesus determined where; Luke 7:8 commander setting orders for those under him; Acts 22:10 God appointing Paul to a ministry, etc). But there are times when the word is used clearly in a context of those being ordered had a say in this assignment of them (Paul and Barnabas Acts 15:2; Acts 28:23 they appoint Paul a day to be heard and talk).

    Example Rom 13:1

    Rom 13:1 Let every soul be subject (upotasso) unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained (tasso) of God.

    Paul’s use of the two forms, tasso (ordained) and upotasso (arranged under) are interesting here. We are to arrange ourselves underneath “the higher powers”. This speaks not of election or predestination, but of a will self ordering. Tasso here is God ordaining the (civil) powers that be. But is this ordination WITHOUT ANY PARTICIPATION OF THESE GOVERNORS? No. They are participating in wanting to enter into government.

    Example 1Cor 16.15

    1Cor 16:15 ​I beseech you, brethren, (ye know the house of Stephanas, that it is the firstfruits of Achaia, and that they have addicted (tasso) themselves to the ministry of the saints,) 16 ​That ye submit (upotasso) yourselves unto such, and to every one that helpeth with us, and laboureth. 

    When a Greek word is totally out of place in our thinking (we may even think it is misused), then it sure that we have missed its real meaning. If we translate tasso consistently here, then it should read “they have ordained themselves to the ministry of the saints.” The issue here is that we do not understand the base meaning of tasso. It is not so much to ordain as in command with authority (because what saint has a right to demand that he minister?) but rather the focus is in an orderly arrangement to fit into a prefit order. A soldier coming late for formation, running up and filling his slot in the formation is the idea here.

    Example Acts 13:48

    Acts 13:48 And when the Gentiles heard this, they were glad, and glorified the word of the Lord: and as many as were ordained to eternal life believed. 

    The actual Greek word here is tetagmenoi, which by its form is passive (“was ordained”) or middle (“were ordaining themselves”). Which is it? The exact same form would be used for either, so both renderings are equal. Read a treatment of this from a Greek point of view at “On Predestination – Acts 13:48” where he says…

    There is nothing in the Greek word itself that can tell us which voice is intended. However, there are convincing historical arguments that ancient Greeks saw the default rendering of “tetagmenoi” as middle voice, even as modern Greeks do… The word literally means, “being set in position”. The “position” can be either physical or intellectual. Undeniably then, “tassomai” can describe volition and resolve (an intellectual disposition), whether this is divine or human. This meaning agrees with most Greek lexicons, many of which include middle voice definitions such as: I agree, I am devoted to, I consent with, I promise, I undertake, I take position, I take side. Indeed, this is exactly how the word is interpreted in 1Co16:15: “You know that the household of Stephanas were the first converts in Achaia, and they have devoted themselves to the service of the saints. –NIV

    If we use this definition, the verse in question would read, “…those that were sided (or aligned, or agreed) with eternal life…” Or more plainly: “…those that had sided with eternal life…”

    In a Greek discussion of the words involved in this verse, note the following…

    I really don't think anything more is meant by this phrase than we mean by saying "All those who were prepared for the test passed it with flying colors." Nothing is said about who prepared the persons in question, whether they had hit the midnight oil for several nights in a row or someone had given them half a dozen help sessions to make sure that they understood all the problems on which they would be examined. What the phrasing says is nothing more than "those who were ready for the test passed it" and of course it's also implied that "those who weren't ready didn't pass it."
    
    I would like to think that matters regarding this verse are that simple and that there's no need to make this verse the buttress for more than it actually says.

    So the idea would seem to be more that at that moment of hearing that God had turned his full attention from using the Jews to now the Gentiles, they arranged themselves to take over the Jews privileged place in eternal salvation. The fore-ordination here probably is not the Gentiles to salvation alone, but the condemnation of the Jews from their highly desired place. What this context sets is a mass take-over of the Jews servanthood and ministry by the Gentiles. This was ordained by God and prophecied, but on a level that isn’t necessarily individual, but corporate.

    [chapter:Trench’s Synomyns (modest)]

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    Kosmios is a favorite word of Plato, which he (and others) frequently applied to the citizen who is quiet in the land, to the one who duly fulfills the duties incumbent on his place and order. Such a person is not ataktos in anything but is tetagmenos (well ordered, cf.G5021).

    The idea here of tasso is to be “well ordered”, to be “arranged or set in order as one should be”. The idea is opposite of disordered. While this does “beat around the bush” of salvation, it is not the concept of ordained as in elected. The concept is much better understood as being set into an order, like an army. Therefore it speaks much more of function, but inclusion. See Vine’s below, Appoint #5.

    [chapter:Vines]

    [chapters:200,left]

    I start with this information by observing that Vine’s has fallen into disreputation among Greek scholars, before it puts a lot of weight on etymology, wherein today, linguists point out that where a word came from is not what defines it at any time, but how people use it at the moment. So Vine’s comments are not as useful as perhaps we would like. Below is from Google Books Greek words on determine…

    DETERMINE, DETERMINATE

    1. krino (2919),

    primarily “to separate,” hence, “to be of opinion, approve, esteem,” Rom. 14:5, also “to determine, resolve, decree,” is used in this sense in Acts 3:13; 20:16; 25:25; 27:1; 1 Cor. 2:2; 2 Cor. 2:1; Titus 3:12. See Condemn, Judge, Judgment, Law, B, No. 2

    2. horizo (3724)

    denotes “to bound, to set a boundary” (Eng., “horizon”); hence, “to mark out definitely, determine”; it is translated “to determine” in Luke 22:22, of the foreordained pathway of Christ; Acts 11:29, of a “determination” to send relief; 17:26, where it is used of fixing the bounds of seasons. In Acts 2:23 the verb is translated “determinate,” with reference to counsel. Here the verbal form might have been adhered to by the translation “determined”; that is to say, in the sense of “settled.” In Rom. 1:4 it is translated “declared,” where the meaning is that Christ was marked out as the Son of God by His resurrection and that of others (see under Declare). In Acts 10:42 and 17:31 it has its other meaning of “ordain,” that is, “to appoint by determined counsel.” In Heb. 4.7, it is translated “limiteth,” but preferably in the RV, “defineth,” with reference to a certain period; here again it approaches its primary meaning of marking out the bounds or. See Declare, No. 9, Limit ORDAIN.

    3. proohzo (4309),

    pro, “beforehand,” and No. 2, denotes “to mark out beforehand, to determine before, foreordain”; in Acts 4:28, KJV, “determined before,” RV, “foreordained”; so the RV in 1 Cor. 2:7, KJV, “ordained”, in Rom. 8:29-30 and Eph. 1:5,11, KJV, “predestinate,” RV, “foreordain.” See Ordain, Note (1), Predestinate.

    4. epiluo (1956),

    lit., “to loosen upon,” denotes “to solve, expound,” Mark 4:34; “to settle,” as of a controversy, Acts 19:39, KJV, “it shall be determined,” RV, “it shall be settled.” See Expound, Settle.

    5. diaginosko (1231),

    besides its meaning “to ascertain exactly,” Acts 23:15, was an Athenian law term signifying “to determine,” so used in 24:22, RV, “determine”; KJV, “know the uttermost of.”

    6. tasso (5021):

    see Appoint, No. 5.

    Note: Boulomai, “to be minded, to purpose,” is translated “determined” in Acts 15:37; RV, was minded. See Minded, No. 2.

    [ 5,,G5021, tasso ]
    “to place in order, arrange,” signifies “to appoint,” e.g., of the place where Christ had “appointed” a meeting with His disciples after His resurrection, Matthew 28:16; of positions of military and civil authority over others, whether “appointed” by men, Luke 7:8, or by God, Romans 13:1, “ordained.” It is said of those who, having believed the Gospel, “were ordained to eternal life,” Acts 13:48. The house of Stephanas at Corinth had “set themselves” to the ministry of the saints (AV, “addicted”), 1 Corinthians 16:15. Other instances of the arranging of special details occur in Acts 15:2; Acts 22:10; Acts 28:23. See DETERMINE, ORDAIN, SET.

    Vine’s makes the point here that this word tasso “ordained” is not the word of choice for election/selection, but rather there are other better and more precise words in Greek for this concept (which Vine’s gives).

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